GER 105 -- The Plan

 Germany

Einführung B (Introduction B)

If you have been here before and know where you want to go, select from the following options. If you are new here, start at the beginning (B.3 Personal pronouns) and scroll through the entire lesson.

Personal pronouns

Kommen

Possessive Adjs.

Articles

Plural forms

Die Familie

Das Wetter

Farben

Review

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In the following sections, exercises marked with an asterisk (*) are to be written out and sent to me. You can also consult the Assignments page for a quick summary of what should be sent to me.

Let's begin our study of Einführung B by reviewing the personal pronouns and the verb kommen that we studied earlier.

(page 45) --- B.3 -- Personal Pronouns

It is absolutely imperative to know the German equivalents of the subject pronouns: I, you, he, she, we, and they. Some are straight English - German equivalents.

I - ich

We - wir (the w has a v sound, so this is pronounced like veer)

Note, however, the following sticky points.

You - There are three different words for you. Du is a familiar form. It is used with family members and very close friends. However, it is used with one person only. Ihr is the form used with more than one family member or close friend. Sie is a formal form and is used with people you don't know as well. Sie is both a singular and a plural form and is always capitalized. For further explanation about these three words for you, read A.7 Addressing people on page 23 in the text.

He - er. Er can also mean it when referring to masculine objects. Yes, in German objects as well as people have gender. More about that later.

She - sie. Sie can also mean it with feminine objects. It is capitalized only at the beginning of a sentence.

They - sie. Another sie. This sie is also capitalized only at the beginning of a sentence. It will be distinguished from sie (she) by its verb ending.

(page 46) -- B.4 -- Origins: Woher kommen Sie? (Where do you come from?)

The second thing I want you to learn is the pattern for regular German verbs. German verbs are more complicated than their English counterparts. The verb kommen on page 46 is a totally "regular" verb and its forms will serve as the model for most of the verbs we encounter. Kommen (to come) is the infinitive, the "generic" form of the verb. We "conjugate" the infinitive when we apply it to the various subject pronouns. To the stem of the infinitive (komm) we add a set of ending depending on which person we are talking to or about. The verb forms at the top of page 46 are actually combinations of the stem (komm) and the verb endings for the following subject pronouns.

Ich (I) -- Add -e to the stem.

Ich komme.

Du (familiar you) -- Add -st to the stem.

Du kommst.

Sie (formal you) -- Add -en.

Sie kommen.

Er (he, it) -- Add -t.

Er kommt.

Sie (she, it) -- Add -t

Sie kommt.

Es (it) -- Add -t.

Es kommt.

Wir (we) -- Add -en

Wir kommen.

Ihr (familiar plural you) -- Add -t

Ihr kommt.

Sie (formal plural you) -- Same as Sie singular. Add -en.

Sie kommen.

Sie (they) -- Add -en.

Sie kommen.

(page 46) --- Übung 7 -- Minidialoge

Complete the sentences using woher (where from), aus (from, out of), and the correct forms of the verb kommen.

The use of woher is a little tricky. Germans don't say literally Where do you come from? They use the word woher which means where from. So the question is really From where come you? (Woher kommen Sie?)

The key to completing the sentences is having some idea what the sentences mean. Work on the English equivalent before you try to fill in the blanks. Click below to make sure of the English meaning and to find the correct answers. You will be expected to reproduce the German dialogues from the English equivalents.

English equivalents

Answers

 

 

(page 47) --- Possessive adjectives: mein, dein/Ihr

Read carefully the material in B.5, noting that just as there are differents words for you, there are different words for your.

(page 47) --- Übung 8 -- Minidialoge

Your task here is to fill in the blanks with the appropriate word for my or your. It might help to know what the sentences mean. Check the English equivalents, noting any new vocabulary, and fill in the blanks accordingly. Then check the answers to see how you have done.

* English equivalents

Answers

(Page 49) --- Übung 9 --- Woher kommen sie? (Where do they come from?)

In this exercise you are to answer the questions which are asking about you and people you know. I have provided a set of sample answers. Check the English equivalents and then translate the questions and answers into German.

* English questions and answers

German questions and answers

(page 41) --- B.1 Definite and indefinite articles

Study section B.1 and the vocabulary on page 26. You will be expected to give the German words for each image. You can check the Klassenzimmer list online if you have any questions about meanings. You can also use the list to practice giving the German from the English equivalents.

(page 26) --- Grammatik B.1-B.2 -- Das Klassenzimmer

(pages 42-44) --- B.2 Plural forms of nouns

Study the discussion of German plural forms and pay particular attention to the examples at the top of page 44. These examples represent all of the ways that German forms plural nouns.

Go back to the classroom vocabulary on page 26, and find the German plural forms. Click below for the correct forms.

(page 26) --- Grammatik B.1-B.2 -- Das Klassenzimmer (with plurals)

(page 44) --- Übung 4 -- Der Körper (the body) and Übung 5 -- Das Zimmer (the room)

I have changed these two exercises into exercises involving the plural forms of the vocabulary for clothing and the parts of the body we had back in Einführung A. In the following links, I give you that vocabulary with the plurals forms as well.

Die Kleidung (with plurals)

Der Körper (with plurals)

Now you will need to do these two sets, plus the Klassenzimmer set, giving both the singular and the plural forms. The following will become potential exam pages.

* Das Klassenzimmer

* Die Kleidung

* Der Körper

(page 44) --- Übung 3 -- Wer hat mehr? (Who has more?)

Now do Übung 3 on page 44. Indicate that Sigrid has one of each item and Helga has two.

Answers

(page 30) --- Grammatik B.3 -- Die Familie

You will be expected to know this vocabulary. There are two lists online. The first lists the family relationships shown on page 30. The second is an expanded list showing other family relationships as well. Know the second list.

Family relationships (p. 30)

* Expanded list of family relationships

(pages 31-32) -- Wetter und Jahreszeiten (Weather and seasons)

You will be expected to know a variety of weather expressions (das Wetter), the months of the year (die Monate des Jahres), the seasons (die Jahrezeiten), and the days of the week (die Tage der Woche). The following lists should come in handy.

* Das Wetter

* Die Monate des Jahres

* Die Jahrezeiten

* Die Tage der Woche

(page 45) --- Übung 6 -- Welche Farbe? (which color)

We also have an exercise using the personal pronouns to talk about colors. Reread the discussion in B.3 and translate the English questions and answers into German.

* English equivalents

Answers

Review Pages

Review - Write the German equivalent of the English.

Review - Write the English equivalent of the German

You don't need to submit this review work since the two pages serve as answer sheets for each other.